Single-celled living beings, with all the structures inherent in the cell: the shell, the nucleus, the cytoplasm... we saw them after the invention of the microscope by, although great minds pointed to the possibility of their existence before. When I was a student I could not understand: how is the total biomass of bacteria on Earth is 500 billion tons?! I thought the whole Earth weighed so much! We live only thanks to this biomass-only bacteria are able to utilize atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates, which are necessary for protein synthesis! (And we from school remember the phrase, more like a slogan: "Life is the form of existence of protein bodies!"). And then there are hydrocarbon reserves, and contribution to the formation of the atmosphere! Such a huge mass along fold – with moon without a telescope you can see! And we the microscope....
In their form, the microbes were divided into spherical – cocci (pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus), sticks (intestinal, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc.), convoluted (spirochetes and embryos) and others. Depending on the reaction to the standard dye at the time (to see better in the microscope), they are traditionally divided into gram-positive and gram-negative.”
Gram-this is not a unit of weight in this case, and the name of the researcher who introduced this color! Different groups of microbes have important features for the doctor: some produce toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli) and form spores (tetanus, botulism), others do not, some need oxygen for their life, others do not, some have a kind of “shell” of polysaccharides, others do not. Therefore, those who have such a shell (pneumococcus, meningococcus, Hemophilus), destroy people with a remote spleen and unvaccinated – such a shell destroys only the spleen!
The total mass of bacteria on Earth is about 500 billion tons. They are necessary for our existence.
Let’s get acquainted by name with those bacteria that we have heard as the main culprits of many serious diseases.
A frequent causative agent of pneumonia, because it is named! But he may well argue for leadership for a place already occupied by another bacterium called meningococcus, which is the most common cause of meningitis in children (the meningococcus in second place!). In General, this bacterium affects most often children under two years (otitis!) and the elderly (65+). Hence the obvious need for vaccinations not only children but also people of age. Otherwise, as the natural immunity of the elderly decreases, pneumococcus gives birth to such monsters! It is sepsis, inflammation of the heart valves, joints, bones, nervous system…
Also very susceptible to the damaging effects of pneumococcus alcoholics and people with remote spleen, as already mentioned. About 30 % of all pneumococci are resistant to penicillin antibiotics. All hope for vaccinations, since the vaccine is!
Not so, by the way, and aggressive bacteria! Very often lives peacefully in our nasopharynx without causing any disease or symptoms. When penetrating into the blood for various reasons, most bacteria die when faced with circulating antibodies and “soldiers” of another protective system under the embarrassing name of its recognition “complement” (more on it later). Well, if meningococci won up, then meningitis, and meningococcal sepsis, and the struggle for the life of the patient – with antibiotics (and if they even acted well, at least as 15 years ago).
Vaccination against meningococcus is included in the list of mandatory vaccinations (for irresponsible parents reference: mortality from meningitis in children – 30 %).
Purulent pimples, boils, and even carbuncles (these are fused together boils)… we treat them, and they come back again and again, poisoning our lives. And this is the smallest muck that Staphylococcus aureus is capable of in relation to us! The fact is that this bacterium is heavily “armed”. Produces 2 types of toxins, plus a substance that destroys antibiotics, and much more like! These toxins cause a deadly complication-toxic shock syndrome! Not heard? Women, do you use tampons? Well, of course: though television advertising has shifted to a different time, now you can eat without hiding the eyes! So, not so often (1-3 cases per 100 000), but it also happens: menstruation, tampons, and after 3-4 days of high temperature, all skin inflamed, red, diarrhea, a sharp drop in pressure, loss of consciousness and possible death!
Especially at risk are those women who use tampons with a high ability to absorb, those who change them rarely and use all days of the menstrual period. Among the” non – menstrual ” causes of toxic shock syndrome-surgery using prostheses, implants, tampons…
Notes in the margin
Once the chief doctor of the neighboring hospital came to me and asked for advice about his relative, should he correct the long-standing curvature of the nasal septum? Snoring, obstruction of nasal breathing, of course, do it! In the rest of the-well as bull, young, 45 years. I put it to myself – we are famous for our ENT Department-a short operation and all is well. Well the first 2 days. And then-exactly as I just described: temperature, rash, pressure drop and shock! The patient in intensive care, relatives come, the same neighbor’s chief physician, and I have to look them in the eye and babble about 1-3 cases per 100 000 operations … Thank God, we pulled him from the world! And I myself to this day and continue to walk with a curved nasal septum, I understand everything, but… At the same time, Staphylococcus aureus often lives on our skin and mucous membranes, without causing any symptoms for the time being. Someone has it then triggers pustular skin infection, someone vomiting and diarrhea, someone infection of the bone or even the heart! There is no vaccine, wash your hands more often and follow the rules of personal hygiene!
Bacteria round shape, which are collected in a chain. Source-intestine (feces), urinary tract… causes inflammation of the heart (endocarditis), kidneys and is resistant to the overwhelming number of antibiotics. Even to such “nuclear weapons” among the antibiotics, such as imipenem! The harmfulness of this bacterium was noted 100 years ago, when it did not take any high temperature or drying! There is no vaccine. Protection-wash hands and other places more often…
Usually we only know this name, although there are many varieties (the same pneumococcus refers to streptococci). What so often causes angina and can give complications to the heart and kidneys is Streptococcus group A. it is also to blame for rheumatism, scarlet fever and the same toxic shock syndrome (paired with Staphylococcus aureus). Streptococcal pharyngitis (angina) is characterized by the presence of three components: temperature over 38, enlarged painful lymph nodes on the front surface of the neck and edematous tonsils. If there are all three signs-the chance of streptococcal infection 50 %! Our actions: confirm smear and prescribe antibiotics for 10 days as prevention of complications!
Group B is no less evil: affects newborns (the main cause of inflammation of the lungs and meningitis in children up to three months, then pneumococcus comes to the leading position) and the elderly. As well as alcoholics, diabetics, pregnant women. There is no vaccine.
Before the vaccine caused most of the meningitis in children under 5 years, the so – called epiglottis-inflammation of a kind of “tongue” over the larynx, which can lead to suffocation (!), pneumonia, arthritis! Remember what I wrote about pneumococcus and spleen?
The same applies to the Hemophilus stick
It lives in children in the mucous Airways (by 18 months of life carriers of bacteria – more than 1/3 of children), is transmitted by airborne droplets. After the introduction of the vaccine in 1985, the number of diseases caused by the Haemophilus influenzae decreased sharply, the mortality rate was 15 %… according to official data, in Russia 5% of parents refuse vaccinations, in fact, apparently more, judging by the outbreak of potentially controlled infections. It’s a shame to watch!
Women must be careful not to use tampons. Many cases when the consequence was a syndrome of toxic shock are recorded.
Blue pus bacillus
One of the most unpleasant microorganisms, the main source of headache for doctors and researchers. Very common, especially in water, sometimes even in distilled! Welcome to just in the water… Pseudomonas aeruginosa lives in ventilators and hospital sinks, striking and so seriously ill people! She is the second cause of pneumonia received inside the hospital, involved in urinary tract infection, infection of postoperative wounds. Deadly for patients with AIDS, with extensive burns, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, low white blood cells. To combat this bacterium developed special antibiotics-you need to know them and do not use the wrong! There is no vaccine.
As the name implies, this wand lives in the intestine. It is part of the normal intestinal flora. (Did you know that if you collect all the myriads of bacteria in our gut, they will gain a whole kilogram?). At some point, part of the bacteria becomes pathogenic – able to cause disease. They manifest genetic material that produces toxins and factors that violate the protective barrier of intestinal cells. This bacterium is the most common cause of dehydration due to diarrhea in the world. Responsible for mass outbreaks of poisoning, urinary tract infections (cystitis). Can be a cause of fatal disease: a severe hemolytic anemia, acute kidney damage… there is no Vaccine. The main safety measures-hand washing and personal hygiene, the use of meat and fish good roasting, raw fish is only after pre-freezing, eggs cook “hard”, Cutlery after contact with raw meat is always washed immediately.
They are different, the most famous-the one that causes typhoid: Salmonella typhoid group D. Comes to us with food (milk), water. During world and civil wars of the epidemic of typhoid fever was cutting people whole companies and emptied the front! People can also be carriers. Where do you think we wear it for the time being? The contents of the gallbladder! The vaccine is not so effective: protects 70-80 percent…
There are also non-typhoid Salmonella-a common cause of food poisoning, poisoning. Source-frozen foods, especially chickens, milk, eggs. It is also possible to spread through exotic animals: iguanas, turtles, etc. Treatment with antibiotics usually does not accelerate recovery, but only transfers patients to the category of carriers, so treat time, patience and a large amount of fluid!
By Microbiology standards, the most recently discovered bacterium was in 1976. It lives in water and is transmitted by airborne droplets. Those unfortunate veterans of The American Legion, in which this bacterium was first isolated, infected through the air conditioner. Indeed, air conditioning, cooling and heating systems, shower-the best environment for bacteria, which has a comfortable temperature for reproduction of 40-60 grams. Causes pneumonia, accompanied by other symptoms: diarrhea, confusion, low sodium. X-ray of such patients always looks much worse than you might expect, listening to the patient with a phonendoscope! The key to diagnosis: involvement of various organs and systems in the process. There is no vaccine.
That’s about the bacterium did. However, about her need to know at least pregnant women. Yes, pregnancy is not a disease, but a condition in which there is a decrease in the body’s defenses (they now cover two or even three or four). Listeria is a bacterium that can not cope with a strong body (the maximum that threatens is diarrhea), but attacks the weak! It is also a scourge of alcoholics, AIDS patients and newborns: a common cause of meningitis in these categories! So pregnant women are particularly sensitive to urinary tract infections. So to them, this increased in this plan note: if in a normal situation, the presence of bacteria in urine does not require treatment, then pregnant then you need antibiotics and especially those that operate in Listeria! Here, by the way, the subtlety: what is usually treated urinary infection, Listeria does not work! Therefore, pregnant women should be given effective in this situation and safe for the expectant mother ampicillin. In General, pregnant women should remember a few simple rules of protection from Listeria.
The frequency of human infection is in the first place! Doctors discovered it 100 years ago, but the realization of its role in provoking so many problems in humans came only in the 80-ies of XX century, when it was discovered the relationship between this microorganism and gastric ulcer. Doctors for this study received the Nobel prize, and we are the 4th decade did not get used to that stomach ulcer-an infectious disease! And erosive gastritis, and stomach lymphoma, and some more unpleasant condition! And as soon as this bacterium only survives in the highly acidic contents of the stomach?
Up to 50 % of the World’s population is infected with this bacterium. With age, this figure approaches 80%. Transmitted from person to person (we – its main reservoir), carriers can be cats and sheep, can sometimes be transmitted with water… no Vaccine, one hope so far for the granddaughter of Apollo – Hygiene! We were taught at the Institute: Hygiene – daughter of Aesculapius and granddaughter of Apollo! When the examination of hygiene at the time, received one of the few triples, it is remembered for a lifetime!
Scientists have traced the sequence of genetic changes in this bacterium and came to the conclusion that it is at least 58 000 years old, about the same time mankind began to settle from its cradle – Africa. Now doctors (and I in particular) actively tried to eradicate it: that will eradicate and will not have ulcers, erosions and heartburn… But it turns out that without this bacteria people never lived! To disturb the ecosystem easily, but will kill harmful insects and begin from hunger extinct birds and further up the chain… Maybe that’s partly why today’s recommendations are: to exterminate Helicobacter pylori, but only if you have symptoms of dyspepsia, heartburn, pain. If asymptomatic carriage, then do not touch!
We know that! Treponema pallidum, the syphilis – who didn’t? Well, Yes, for 500 years as the first described the disease! It is transmitted, as you know, sexually. All of these explanations such as “I was in the bath, took someone else’s towel” rolled! However, the student saw a policeman, whose primary syphilitic defeat-hard shankr, was on his hand: he was bitten by a homeless man during detention! Treated quite easily. Since this same chancre does not hurt and may not be in sight, many do not begin to be treated on time. Then secondary syphilis – a Multisystem disease affecting the brain, aorta and much more-can threaten. Note that there are two types of analysis for syphilis: one will always be positive, even if you have long been cured (this is FTA-ABC), the other “catches” only the real presence of spirochaetes.
And again: if a woman has repeated miscarriages, had thrombosis and suddenly there was a positive test for syphilis-do not rush to the diagnosis! “Syphilis” in this case is a classic manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (in lupus or scleroderma), and this test is false positive, there are its laboratory subtleties.
Spirochetes are not only pale. Below will be said about Lyme disease or borreliosis, which spread ticks. There is also the pathogen pallidum, the only other of its kind. Insidious disease that affects not only the skin but also the heart, joints, nervous system. May give a false positive test for syphilis (the one that remains positive forever).
There is also leptospirosis. This spirochete is transmitted with water and through infected animals, is very common in third world countries, affects the liver, brain, lungs… there are no vaccines against spirochetes.
Ever heard of that? Heard! “Clostridium botulinum” causes botulism and produces the strongest known toxins in nature! Tightly blocks the transmission of nerve impulses and causes muscle paralysis. Botox-a medicine based on this toxin-is used not only in cosmetology, but also in the treatment of migraine, asthma and even constipation! Clostridium tetanus causes tetanus. Are you vaccinated? This is the only Clostridium against which there is a reliable vaccine).
There are several varieties of Clostridium, I will focus on one – Clostridium difficile. The fact is that in our craze for dysbacteriosis we miss the mortal danger that the toxin of this particular bacterium can carry. Diarrhea, which sometimes develops during and after antibiotics, is often caused by the direct action of these antibiotics (especially popular ones such as Sumamed and Clacid) on intestinal motility. The reason may be, and the same problem. But unlike what we are constantly told, is a banal and perfectly sound condition: microflora successfully and quickly recovers itself. Can I drink the “good bacteria”: Linex and there are different kefirchika? You can, of course, will not be worse. Money is yours! Only on the microflora, they have no effect and then safely “wakacjada” our body.
But it also happens: a week or two after taking antibiotics, diarrhea develops; the doctor, anxious to prescribe you more of these meaningless “useful bacteria”, does not take into account the possibility of developing toxic acute colon damage as a result of the uncontrollable growth of “clostridia dificile” and leaves the patient without treatment of this terrible disease. Here it is necessary not to give, and again, the antibiotics Vancomycin or Metronidazole (after confirming the presence of the toxin Clostridium difficile in the chair).
Recent times has proved its effectiveness in the treatment of this infection and the other, just say, alapetite method – transplanting feces from a healthy person. Yes, I’m not kidding, it is generally recognized and quite effective. How do you like this method of treatment of dysbiosis? It’s not kefir! Imagine the commercials on TV: “indigestion? Rumbling in the abdomen and heaviness? Our specially fattened donors are ready to provide you with high quality feces!»
Being fond of “treatment” of dysbacteriosis, it is important not to miss the moment when urgent antibiotic therapy is needed.
There are several varieties, one of them is responsible for the most common sexually transmitted disease – chlamydia. Often asymptomatic, leading to inflammation, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Another kind of it was recently renamed from chlamydia to Chlamydophila. And that for passion constantly these bacteria s name?! Only you will remember, and already renamed! And sometimes worse: for centuries considered the organism as a parasite, but then again – and he’s already a mushroom. So, it causes inflammation of the lungs and may be to blame for such a severe and widespread disease as atherosclerosis of blood vessels! But more about that in detail later. There is no vaccine.
Of course, the bacteria are still a great many and if you introduce you to all, get a multi-volume. Above are the main, in addition, further in separate chapters we will talk about the main infections, so some worthy of our attention microbes are omitted here, so as not to be repeated!