Bacterial infections are diseases provoked by bacteria. These include a fairly wide range of pathologies, ranging from ordinary skin infections and ending with severe diseases. It can be meningitis, pneumonia, kidney or bladder inflammation.
Quite often there are violations of the upper respiratory tract. Bacterial infections, unlike viral ones, can be successfully eliminated with the help of antibiotics, however, in order to be treated effectively, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
The mechanism of development of bacterial infection
Signs of this type of infection are due to several mechanisms:
- The formation of exotoxin is a chemical produced by a bacterium.
- Endotoxin formation-this substance is released during the destruction of bacteria.
- Increased sensitivity to bacteria.
If you do not start treating bacterial infection in time, it can affect the systemic blood flow. This dangerous condition is called bacteremia and can lead to irreversible changes in the body of an adult or a child.
Bacterial infection of the respiratory tract
One of the most common types of bacterial infections are various pathologies of the upper respiratory tract. The reasons for the development of such violations can be different – hypothermia, stress, fatigue.
Pathogens of upper respiratory tract infections-staphylococci, pneumococci, streptococci – can be in the body for a long time and in no way manifest itself. If there is a decrease in immunity, they are activated, causing the development of the disease.
Quite often, upper respiratory infections appear without prodromal period. Often this disease becomes a complication of SARS. And the viral infection, as a rule, begins with a General deterioration of health, but local manifestations are absent. When bacterial lesions of the upper respiratory tract is always a pronounced focus.
In addition, such diseases have a long and inactive development. At the same time, it is difficult to identify the moment of the onset of the disease. Symptoms of bacterial infection often include purulent discharge, which may have a yellow or yellow-green color. In the throat there is a RAID of white and yellow. The temperature at the very beginning of the disease does not rise too much. Effective treatment of bacterial damage to the respiratory tract is impossible without the use of antibiotics.
Features of bacterial infections in women
One of the most common bacterial diseases in women is vaginosis, which is associated with vaginal dysbiosis. The fact is that normally in the vagina of a woman must be present lactobacilli. If they are replaced by anaerobic microorganisms, a disease called bacterial vaginosis develops. In medicine, this pathology is found in 20% of women aged 18 to 50 years.
Changes in the vaginal microflora in women lead to douching, the use of contraceptive candles or pastes, the use of antibiotics. Also, the activity of bacteria in the vagina increases if a woman experiences stress, change in hormonal background or a decrease in immunity. Quite often this disease of the vagina occurs if the woman is used to often change sexual partners.
The main signs of this pathology in women include the appearance of an unpleasant smell and increased vaginal discharge. Also, in about half of the cases, women complain of itching and burning sensation in the vagina and discomfort during sexual intercourse.
For the treatment of this disease in gynecology, it is customary to use antibiotics of local action. In addition, the doctor can prescribe drugs for the normalization of the vaginal microflora – eubiotics. After the treatment, the woman must once again take a vaginal smear.
To prevent the development of vaginal vaginosis in women, it is necessary to engage in its prevention:
- Use condoms;
- Refuse casual sex;
- Use antiseptic drugs for two hours after suspicious sexual contact.
Features of bacterial infections in children
In children, bacterial infections are associated with the active growth of pathogenic bacteria. In the child’s body, they begin to multiply rapidly, releasing toxins. These toxic substances affect cells and tissues, causing painful symptoms – fever, malaise, cough, etc.
The most common infections that can be diagnosed in a child include measles, mumps, rubella, scarlet fever. Quite often children are diagnosed with respiratory diseases. In this case, not always getting microbes in the body of the child leads to the development of the disease.
If the child has symptoms of bacterial infection – fever or cough, he is prescribed antibiotics. Thanks to their use, dangerous complications can be prevented. To cope with the disease as quickly as possible, you should consult a doctor when the first symptoms of a child appear.
The main method of diagnosis of this type of infection in an adult and a child is a bacteriological study. The patient is taken material that contains bacteria. For example, in the presence of an infection of the upper respiratory tract, it is necessary to make an analysis of sputum, which is placed in a special nutrient medium.
This will not only identify the bacteria, but also to assess their sensitivity to antibiotics, which will allow to choose an effective treatment.
It is important that the blood. Bacterial infection is usually accompanied by an increase in the level of leukocytes due to an increase in the content of neutrophils. Usually there is a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left – in this state increases the number of rod neutrophils, and metamyelocytes and myelocytes may occur.
Because of this, the relative level of lymphocytes decreases. The rate of erythrocyte sedimentation, as a rule, remains high enough.
Principles of treatment of bacterial infections
Treatment of bacterial infections in adults and children must be comprehensive. It usually includes the following components:
Etiotropic treatment – is aimed at combating the cause of pathology. For this purpose, bactericidal or bacteriostatic antibiotics are used.
Pathogenetic therapy – used to cleanse the body of toxins that accumulate during infection. It is also very important to treat damaged organs.
Symptomatic therapy – is required in order to alleviate the human condition and reduce the manifestations of the disease. For example, in case of infection of the upper respiratory tract, cough preparations will be needed, and when gynecological problems appear, the doctor will prescribe local antibiotics.
Today, most bacterial infections can be eliminated with the help of antibacterial drugs. However, only a doctor should prescribe such medicines to an adult or a child, otherwise bacteria may develop resistance to drugs.
Any bacterial infection is quite dangerous for adults and children, because it can cause irreversible changes in the body. Such diseases are usually accompanied by fever, General malaise and other symptoms – it all depends on the location of inflammation.
For example, lesions of the upper respiratory tract are often accompanied by cough, and problems in gynecology indicate various discharge. In any case, the appearance of unusual symptoms should be an occasion to consult a doctor.