If about the structure of bacteria, kind, understand, with the virus more difficult. Here is the parallel: bacteria – the smallest atom, the cell. Could there be anything less? Maybe! It's an electron, in our case, a virus. The cells of bacteria and the shell and the nucleus, and the cytoplasm, and its "powerhouse" – the mitochondria, someone flagella and stuff... the virus is nothing! Amino acid chain: either DNA or RNA, protein on top – and almost everything! The rest he takes from the cells that make up our tissues. Introduced, reprogrammed-and now the cell is already working on the virus! (And you think why are called "virus" that hackers introduce in our computers which start from it "to fail"?). Because antibiotics do not work on them!
How do antibiotics work? Or the shell is dissolved – and the bacterium dies, or the reproduction is blocked, or the nucleus is destroyed… And if none of this is? As the battle with the shadow swung, aimed and hang on. – and to beat! Light ripples in the air and emptiness! We are trying to create special antiviral drugs; only we will create, check, register – and on you, the virus has slightly mutated, and all for nothing!
Notes in the margin
In Thailand, the popular elephant show. Once watched as they were engaged in the business, and here one of them wanted to copulate with the girlfriend. It’s a matter of life, animals have no intimacy. Elephant has prepared its incredible length of the device, perched on the elephant, which phlegmatic chewed something, took aim … Elephant slightly wagged his hip, and a huge “shell” passed by! Male person went on a new calling. He waited a long time until his swinging process gets into the right plane (hands-no, how to direct?)… and all of a sudden subtle movement of the hips munching partner… and missed again! Tourists, crowded around, fervently empathized in different languages, the elephant made new attempts – all in vain!
I cite this story as an illustration of how even a minimum effort can destroy the most rosy and well-designed plans!
It is believed that if we could choose our enemies, we would have degenerated long ago. But you don’t have to choose. Microbiology and Virology are like arithmetic and higher mathematics! After all, the virus is not even an organism, strictly speaking! Well, they do not have the organelles and systems necessary to fall under this definition. However, they have many features of living beings: the ability to reproduce, heredity, variability, adaptability to environmental conditions.
Viruses cause a huge number of diseases: most are asymptomatic and themselves, some are deadly. I am sure that in the future all new viruses will be detected, and not one more disease will be in fact the result of their invasion!
Let’s, as in the case of bacteria, list the main groups of viruses to at least approximately navigate them. Because, if the names of some bacteria somehow at the hearing, the viruses for most all on one person!
Herpes simplex virus. There are two types. The first affects the lips, mouth and throat, the second-the genitals. Extremely common, type 1 infected 90 % of the World’s population! The fact is that, once in the body, all viruses of the herpes family (and this is a simple herpes, and herpes “zoster”, and Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus) remain there forever. First, the period of acute infection, and then out, and again reactivation! For herpes simplex type 1 reactivation is provoked by stress, exposure to the sun, menstruation, dental procedures. As many of you have experienced in their experience, antiviral ointments do not help; those who “dopeklo” have to take drugs inside. Neither the 1st nor the 2nd type of herpes there is no vaccine.
It is not necessary to do an analysis for herpes simplex virus, as a positive response does not carry useful information.
Herpes in the genital area is painful and dangerous for pregnant women, or rather, for a newborn. Therefore, a woman with herpes on the genitals gives birth by caesarean section. If herpes at the bottom (type 2) often used once a year, it is recommended that a constant prophylactic administration of an antiviral drug (read the book “Russian roulette”).
Tests for the presence of herpes simplex to make sense of a large no: certainly will be positive antibodies (remember-90 %?), including antibodies of the acute phase, the manifestations, most likely, will not be-reactivation launched an immune response, but the clinical manifestations have not reached. Let me remind my regular readers and give useful advice to those who have not read my previous books: after the words “positive” in the text of the analysis, look at the three Latin letters after. IgG is an infection in the past, was and is not, often these antibodies remain for life! IgM is a period of acute infection.
Herpes zoster. Causes chickenpox. Once in the body, remains there for life. Lives in the nerve plexus and waiting in the wings. It waits for a long time, when the body weakens or reactivates with age and causes shingles, which can be accompanied by wild pains! And at first pain, then bubbles, in fact, bubbles may not be at all. I will not repeat, remember one thing: there is a vaccine against herpes zoster and vaccination, necessary not only for children but also for people after 60 to prevent extremely painful reactivation!
Notes in the margin
I’d buy all my books if I were you! And you will be useful, and I am pleased! Yes, there are repetitions, but they can not be avoided – in our body everything is interconnected: you talk about cardiology and always mention about infections, about the intestine – it is closely related to the joints and so on. and so on. So often valuable information is scattered in different books, but I do not see a big trouble to repeat: it is better to remember! Something has changed even over the past 2 years, and I include it in the book. The rest is a necessary stock of basic medical knowledge that can help you choose the right line of behavior when faced with the disease.
Once at a meeting with readers there was a girl-she was a student of medical Institute – and told how during educational rounds of chambers the patient asked young future physicians: “and you read doctors?»
Hearing the negative answer, said: “I will not talk to you: go and read first.”
Nice, excellent work! You think the delusions of grandeur are over? Here not that: unfortunately, very few adequate and competent books on medicine! Don’t want Myasnikova – read Dr. Rodionova or David Agus.
Cytomegalovirus. A very common virus. Half of the World’s population faces it by the age of 35. For the vast majority is not dangerous, and the meeting with him is asymptomatic. Very different virus appears before those who have reduced immunity, for example, patients with AIDS! Also, a set of deadly and insidious diseases often gets a person who needs an organ transplant. From the donor, along with the body, a seemingly harmless virus is introduced: but in order for the organ to take root, the patient is forced to give medications that inhibit the immune response. And then the virus will clear up: a systemic cytomegalovirus infection will affect the brain, kidneys, liver, eyes, and adrenal glands! Often such patients need to take drugs against the virus for life. It can also cause fetal abnormalities in pregnant women. There is no vaccine.
Epstein-Barr Virus. Another extremely common virus from the herpes family. Like them all, hitting the man in the blood stays there forever.
This-in the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx: tonsils, salivary glands… someone this meeting is almost asymptomatic, someone develops infectious mononucleosis with appropriate manifestations: temperature for 38, swollen and edematous tonsils, enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Transmitted with saliva (“kissing disease”!), using common utensils, but can sexually! Passes himself, but take care of the spleen: it increases with mononucleosis and another month after the disease with a small injury can “burst”, and it is already deadly! The” badness ” of this virus is that it can cause cancer – lymphoma (lymphogranulomatosis) and nasopharyngeal cancer – one of the examples of infectious cancer! Many researchers blame this virus for chronic fatigue syndrome! The vaccine is, but not very effective, working hard on a new one.
Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial viruses. You all have them very well (and even too!) know. They cause ARI (acute respiratory disease). Sneezing, coughing, fever pass themselves, although in rare cases it is necessary to hospitalize children with an unusually severe course of this infection.
Influenza viruses. Still one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases! Especially dangerous for those over 55 years old and with the presence of COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This name combines chronic bronchitis, pneumosclerosis and emphysema. By the way, 95% of smokers ‘ disease. No matter how they argue about the benefits or dangers of vaccination, remember: the vaccine reduces mortality from influenza by 33 %!
The man observed three types of influenza virus: A, b and C. Further still, in fairy tales: “a senior was a clever fellow, middle son – this way and that, younger at all there was a fool.” Annual influenza epidemics cause types A and B, type C – just something like mild ARI. It is important to know which influenza virus is causing the epidemic: some popular antiviral drugs act only against virus A and not against B!
The conversation about vaccinations still ahead of us, and yet one of the most frequent questions about “avian”, “swine”, and other “animal” flu. Indeed, flu is not a privilege of Homo sapiens (a reasonable person), many varieties of influenza viruses circulate among animals and birds. They can cause diseases in humans. Pigs play a special role here. They themselves do not suffer from the flu, but they have in the throat (trachea) there are special receptors in which viruses feel comfortable both human and “bird” flu. So cozy that there is their “mixing” and the emergence of new, unprecedented strains.
Of course epidemics caused by mutated varieties of viruses “bird” or “pig” flu – is not the discovery of recent years, when the appearance of human “bird flu” declared almost Apocalypse! Always the same virus, and always the people they hurt. Only who then understood these viruses and their varieties! The excitement arose from the fact that if we are ready for the usual varieties of the influenza virus, the “animal” strains, mutated and mixed with each other and their “human” brethren, require other approaches, vaccines.
Potentially, the disease may be much more aggressive: no signs of immune or clinical experience at local doctors… Oh, and then a reassessment of the threat (perhaps deliberate?), a lot of money for research and vaccines (who took our slogan: “homeland is in danger!”blame it), all of Bulgakov: “people like people… I Like money, but it’s always been”.
But, by the way, if then carried, it does not mean that such a scenario is impossible. Even as is possible! Remember the “Spaniard” of the early XX century, which claimed in 1918 more lives than the bubonic plague, during all the epidemics that devastated medieval Europe. Presumably, it was a mutated bird flu virus! (the” pure ” avian influenza virus is not transmitted from person to person, only from birds to person. In any case, otherwise not really proven).
Influenza continues to be the leader in the number of deaths from infectious diseases.
Vaccination reduces the risk by 33 %.
Rotavirus. A common cause of gastroenteritis in children. The acute occurrence of diarrhea leads to severe dehydration, as a result – the world half a MILLION deaths a year! Transmitted oral-fecal route.
It only so seems that such way doesn’t threaten you – we don’t eat excrements. Touch different surfaces with your hands (and who touched them there before?), then take Cutlery etc. And the water? In bottles-Yes, of course, and the results of her bacteriological research are often terrifying! And we stopped boiling. How does the virus get into the water? Take the textbook 3 th class: maelstrom of water in nature. Sadly it sounds, but all that we drink, someone before us already drank! From rotavirus is vaccination, from 2014, it is available from us!
Adenovirus. A common cause of ARI and gastroenteritis in children. It can cause conjunctivitis, otitis, angina and even pneumonia. Doctors considered that 10% of all diseases in children, which are accompanied by an increase in temperature, are caused by adenovirus. There was a study indicating a possible link between adenovirus infection and obesity! It is transmitted, like most viruses, by airborne droplets.
The vaccine was used at one time to prevent outbreaks in dormitories and barracks, then it was abandoned due to lack of effectiveness. But adenovirus, in turn, has become the object of research as a possible tool in gene therapy and to create vaccines against tumors and infections such as AIDS and malaria.
Human papilloma virus. With this virus faced all who have ever had warts. About 100 species, some of them prefer to settle in the skin, most – in the mucous, especially the urogenital zone. (Types b, 11, 16,18, 24 and 31 cause papillomas in the urogenital area, but only 16, 18, 24 and 31 can cause cervical cancer. It turns out that the number of the virus is higher, the more evil it is! 1, 2 and 5 cause only plantar warts). Transmitted from person to person in close contact, mainly when having sex.
This virus is the cause of some cancers. Classically, it is cancer of the cervix, penis, vagina, anus, larynx… – in General, almost everywhere where there are available (and not only the virus!) mucous. Vaccine there is. What did the parents of those 500 thousand unvaccinated girls who get cervical cancer in adulthood think about, I do not know… we will have more Talk about these vaccinations.