Tetracycline belongs to a group of drugs called tetracycline antibiotics. It is also known as a broad-spectrum antibiotic and can be used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. Tetracycline is included in the list of essential medicines of the "World Health Organization", a list of the most important medicines needed in the basic health care system.
Tetracycline is a polyketide antibiotic of a wide spectrum, produced by the genus of actinobacteria Streptomyces. Assigned to use against many bacterial infections, it is an inhibitor of protein synthesis. Today it is widely used to treat acne and, more recently, rosacea, and has also played a historically important role in reducing the number of deaths from cholera. Tetracycline is sold under the trademarks of sumicin, tetracine and panmicin among others. Actisite is a filamentary fiber used in dentistry. It is also used to produce several semi-synthetic derivatives, which together are known as tetracycline antibiotics. The term is also used to refer to the four rings of the system of this connection. "Tetracyclines" are related substances that contain the same system of four rings.
Tetracycline is a kind of classic among antibiotics, it is among the earliest drugs, was developed back in the late 40's.
Its basis is a four-cycle molecular system.
Despite the fact that antibiotics tend to lose effectiveness over time, because strains of bacteria are constantly mutating, as a result of which gradually they lose their susceptibility, such antibiotic as tetracycline, has not lost its relevance to our time. Moreover, a group of tetracycline drugs has been replenished with new agents.
This antibiotic can not be used in the following cases: For allergies, Tetracycline, other similar antibiotics (such as minocycline or doxycycline) or any other ingredients of this drug. If you have kidney or liver problems for a long time or if you have a serious kidney disease. With systemic lupus erythematosus, a condition characterized by a rash (especially on the face), hair loss, fever, malaise and joint pain. For children under 12 years of age. General indications for use are various infectious diseases associated with microbial invasion.
In gynecology and urology, tetracyclines treat the following diseases:
In addition, tetracycline is used to treat pneumonia, intestinal infections, angina, bronchitis, conjunctivitis and so on. In gynecology, indications are the inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs are caused mainly by gonococcus (gonorrhea), strepto- and staphylococci, chlamydia. In most cases, several types of bacteria become the cause of the disease. Tetracyclines exert an effect on most of them, suppressing the development and spread of pathogenic flora from the source of the disease.
In complex treatment the following indications: mastitis, meningitis, barley on the eye, pleurisy, severe burns. Also an indication for the use of tetracycline group drugs may be the prevention of inflammation after surgery.
However, like most other antibiotics, tetracyclines have no significant effect on viruses, except for a number of large ones, and have a weak effect on fungi, excluding the genus Candida. Moreover, treatment with tetracyclines can contribute to the emergence of candidiasis, including the genitourinary system.
Tetracyclines are very well absorbed into the blood and form high tissue concentrations, while they are distributed throughout the body. Application in pregnancy and during lactation is not recommended because the drugs of the tetracycline group have the ability to penetrate the placental barrier.
The modern medicines of the tetracycline group, which are available in various forms, include:
Actually, Tetracycline is released in tablets and capsules of 0.05-0.3 g for oral administration, and as an ointment for external use.
Tetracycline in tablets and ointment are used to treat acne in adolescents. Assign the drug inside with an average degree of acne, when the face, chest and shoulders are affected by acne. A combined use with other agents is possible. A tetracycline complex with nystatin is produced to prevent the multiplication of fungi - a common occurrence when taking antibiotics.
If you forget to take Tetracycline - Do not take a double dose to make up for the forgotten dose. If you forget to take the dose, take it as soon as you remember, and then take the next dose at the right time.
If you stop taking Tetracycline tablets - Do not stop treatment before the due time, as the infection can return if you do not finish the course of treatment!
Animal studies have shown that Tetracycline is dangerous for fetal development, however, there are currently no exact data on the safety of taking this medication during pregnancy in women.
Before 1950, it was believed that "Tetracycline" had no effect on fetal development, but later there were reports that taking this medication (after the 5th-6th month of pregnancy) could cause a permanent dyeing of the child's teeth in brown. It has also been shown that the use of tetracycline during pregnancy can disrupt the formation of the skeleton of a child and can have a negative effect on the functioning of the liver of a pregnant woman. It should be noted that the violation of the liver during treatment with tetracycline is also found in non-pregnant women. In general, this side effect is extremely rare, but its effects can be very severe.
According to some information, the use of this drug during pregnancy can not cause severe malformations, but still it can provoke such birth defects as an inguinal hernia.
Based on all the above, we can draw the following conclusion: the use of tetracycline in the form of tablets during pregnancy is not recommended. Nevertheless, if a woman took tetracycline in the first weeks of pregnancy (for example, when she did not yet know that she was pregnant), it most likely would not affect the health of the unborn child.
Before you start taking Tetracycline, tell your doctor if you are pregnant or if you are planning a pregnancy in the near future. Also, tell your doctor if you become pregnant while taking tetracycline.
On the basis of data on the biological properties of tetracycline, it can be theoretically assumed that taking this medication during breastfeeding can cause a permanent dyeing of the child's teeth in brown.
Nevertheless, until now no real case has been described in the medical literature when a child whose mother would take tetracycline would actually develop this side effect. This is partly due to the fact that only small amounts of Tetracycline enter the breast milk, from which even smaller quantities enter the blood of the baby (the absorption of tetracycline into the blood of the child is prevented by the calcium contained in the milk).
However, in all cases where treatment is expected to last longer than 7 days or when several consecutive courses of antibiotic treatment are necessary, during breastfeeding, specialists recommend replacing Tetracycline with another safer antibiotic.
A large family of antibiotics, "tetracyclines", was discovered in the form of natural products by Benjamin Daggar in 1945, and the first prescription was issued in 1948. According to Yellapragada Subbarao, Benjamin Daggar made his discovery of the first tetracycline antibiotic, chlortetracycline (aureomycin), in the Lederle lab in 1945.
In 1950, Robert Burns Woodward, a professor at Harvard University, defined the chemical structure of a related substance, oxytetracycline (terramycin). Patent protection of the fermentation and production process was also issued for the first time in 1950. A research group of 8 scientists (CJ Brunings, FE Khotshtein, FJ Pilgrim, SR Stevens, L.Kh. Konover, A. Bavli, R. Pasternak and PR Renja) from Pfizer, in collaboration with the chemist Woodward, participated in a two-year study that led to the discovery.
Pfizer was of the opinion that it deserved the right to receive a patent for tetracycline and submitted its application to Conover in October 1952. Cyanamid submitted its application to Boothe-Morton for such rights in March 1953, while Heyden Chemicals filed its application Minieri in September 1953, naming it in honor of the scientist PP. Minieri, to obtain a patent for tetracycline and its fermentation process. This led to a lawsuit in which the winner would have to prove beyond a reasonable doubt the priority invention and the natural state of tetracycline.
It was found that Nubian mummies studied in the 1990s contain significant levels of Tetracycline; Beer that was brewed at that time could have been a source. Tetracycline stimulated the development of many chemically altered antibiotics, thus being one of the most important discoveries made in the field of antibiotics. It is used to treat many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Like some other antibiotics, it is also used in the treatment of acne.
Many patients are often surprised and ask - are antibiotics prescribed for gum diseases? Let's hasten to calm: for the treatment of complex forms of gum disease, the dentist can appoint special means. After all, what is the essence of the action of antibiotics? They inhibit the vital activity of pathogens. But when the form of parodontosis is neglected, inflammation of the gums is provoked by pathogenic microorganisms. And if at an early stage of the development of the disease you can do by rubbing healing balms, gels and oils for the gums, then at later stages, antibiotics for gum diseases are simply irreplaceable.
A dentist can prescribe antibiotics for a variety of gum diseases:
When gingivitis is prescribed in order to quickly remove the inflammatory process. Do not take antibiotics on your own, they can only be prescribed by a doctor, given the degree of neglect of the disease and the general health of the patient.
In some cases, tetracycline can cause various side effects from many organs and tissues. Most often, these side effects are temporary and completely disappear after the completion of the course of treatment.
The use of tetracycline can cause the following side effects:
Penetrating into the gastrointestinal tract, tetracycline can irritate the mucous membrane of the intestine, esophagus or stomach. The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, or stool discomfort.
Oral administration of tetracycline can lead to the following side effects:
Antibiotic tetracycline is contraindicated in the following situations:
Special care for the appointment of tetracycline should be followed with concomitant ulcer of the stomach and intestines, with severe damage to the kidneys. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the appointment of tetracycline is justified only in severe pathologies, when the expected effect of treatment exceeds the likelihood of harm to the fetus.
In the instructions for tetracycline tablets, it is indicated that side effects can occur when taking the drug:
DISRUPTION OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:
The defeat of the nervous system:
Tetracycline-AKOS in a number of cases can cause allergic reactions:
From the side of the circulatory system may be noted:
In the instructions to Tetracycline, it is noted that the drug disrupts the urinary tract, increasing the concentration of nitrogen compounds and creatinine in the blood.
As testimonies about Tetracycline testify, the drug can provoke hypovitaminosis, the development of candidiasis (thrush) of the oral mucosa and genital organs. To avoid these negative effects, it is recommended that together with Tetracycline, take an antifungal drug Nystatin.
According to doctors, Tetracycline is well tolerated. Very rarely, when taking the drug, superinfection may occur. When taking the medicine, the color of the enamel of the teeth changes in the children.
Judging by the numerous reviews of parents, Tetracycline quickly eliminates diarrhea caused by infection in the intestines.
Tablets Tetracycline stored in a sealed packaging manufacturer in a dry, protected from the light spot, separate from food and feed, at a temperature of 5 ° C to 25 ° C. Shelf life of the drug under the storage conditions is 2 years from the date of manufacture. Do not use the drug after the expiry date. Tablets tetracycline should be stored in places inaccessible to children.
Since tetracycline is absorbed by the bone, it is used as a bone growth marker in biopsies in humans. Tetracycline labeling is used to determine the volume of bone growth over a period of time, usually for about 21 days. Tetracycline combines with the mineralizing bone and can be detected by its fluorescence. In "double Tetracycline labeling" the second dose is administered 11-14 days after the administration of the first dose, and the amount of bone formed during this interval can be calculated by measuring the distance between two fluorescent labels.
Tetracycline is also used as biomarkers in the wild to detect the use of baits containing, drugs or vaccines.
In genetic engineering, tetracycline is used in the activation of transcription. It is also one of the antibiotics used to treat ulcers caused by a bacterial infection. In a cancer study at Harvard Medical School, tetracycline was used to cancel leukemia in genetically modified mice, and did this reliably when added to drinking water.
A technique is being developed to control the species of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes using a strain that, due to genetic modification, requires tetracycline for further development of the larval stage. Modified males grown in the laboratory will develop normally as they are born with this substance and can be released to freedom. Subsequent offspring will inherit this trait, but will not find tetracycline in their environment and, thus, will never develop into adult individuals.
Successfully used in dogs and cats in the treatment of conjunctivitis, especially if it was caused by chlamydia or mycoplasma. Good results are given by tetracycline and in the treatment of eye diseases with an unexplained etiology, that is, when it was not possible to reliably identify the pathogen.
Interesting fact. Some veterinarians use Tetracycline as a diagnostic drug to diagnose herpes. The fact is that conjunctivitis in cats is caused by the herpes virus in 90% of cases, and all the others fall on chlamydia and mycoplasmosis.
So, if there is no positive dynamics in antibiotic treatment, then it is more likely to be said that the cause of lacrimation was the virus.
It is important in the treatment of eye diseases to use Tetracycline ointment for at least three weeks, so as not to lead to a relapse. It is during this period that the reproductive cycle of microbes is completely broken.
Any disease must be treated, if it is not done, it can grow into a more serious category. Infection is always difficult, viruses have the ability to multiply, so act quickly and efficiently. The group of antibiotics Tetracycline is an excellent variant of rapid response to the onset of an infectious disease. The drug used effectively copes with the bacterium and prevents its reproduction. The main thing to remember about all the precautions when using this product as a medicine.
Today's consumers are distinguished by their informativeness. Many who buy Tetracycline online leave feedback characterizing its quality. According to the analysis of all available reviews for Tetracycline, we can conclude that it is really effective.
Doctors speak of the drug as being well tolerated, the main thing is to follow all the recommendations and precautions provided by the treating specialist. There is a change in the color of the enamel in babies, which later passes.