This Chapter will focus on viruses.
The fact that they are invincible (conditionally invincible) – is clear.
It has been said above that due to the extreme simplicity of the organization and the small size it is very difficult to deal with them. But why are viruses degenerates?
There is a hypothesis of the origin of viruses, according to which viruses were once small cells, parasitic in larger cells, like rickettsias and chlamydia, but over time they have lost all the “extra” that was not necessary in a parasitic lifestyle. There was only genetic material in the “package”. Simplification of the organization associated with the loss of organs and systems, biologists call degeneration, and this hypothesis, respectively – the hypothesis of degeneration.
According to another hypothesis, which is called the hypothesis of cellular origin, viruses were formed from fragments of cellular nucleic acids.
The third hypothesis – the hypothesis of coevolution (joint evolution) – believes that viruses appeared when proteins were combined with nucleic acids simultaneously with the first cells and evolved, that is, changed with them.
Each hypothesis of the origin of viruses has supporters and opponents, none of the hypotheses is not accepted as the main, so we can say that the origin of viruses is covered with darkness. The origin of viruses interests scientists not just out of curiosity. Understanding where the viruses came from, you can effectively deal with them.
Viruses do not reproduce by cell division, but by self-Assembly in the host cell. Perhaps, the beginning of life on our planet was laid by such “self-assembling” organic molecules. It is actually a very interesting question – how from non-living suddenly became alive? A clear answer to it has not yet been received.
Fighting is the key word that defines humanity’s attitude to viruses. And how else can you treat intracellular parasites that cause diseases of plants, animals and humans? Shall I kiss them? On the hands of wear?
However, geneticists, or rather genetic engineers, have learned to use viruses to transfer genes into cells. For this purpose, the so-called “moderate” types of bacteriophages are selected. Moderate bacteriophages do not cause death of host cells due to their active reproduction, but simply “insert” their nucleic acid into the cell DNA or are isolated in the cytoplasm (that is, become a kind of plasmid). In such cases, we can talk about the symbiosis of the virus and bacteria. Most often – about the conditional symbiosis, because the “dormant” virus can go into the active state and begin to multiply rapidly, which in most cases leads to cell death. Rare bacteriophages (and viruses in General) are able to leave “their” cell so as not to cause its death. As a sign of appreciation for such humane behavior, these bacteriophages receive from the cell a “gift” – a small area of the cell membrane, which becomes their shell-capsid. Multiplying viral nucleic acids come from the inside to the membrane and as if budding from the cell.
Now let’s take a break from Virology (the section of Microbiology that studies viruses) and turn to history.
Who and why built the Great wall of China?
The nomads-the Mongols in order to defend against the Chinese settled or settled by the Chinese in order to defend against the nomadic Mongols?
The question seems idiotic – of course the Chinese. The nomads could not build such solid structures, and there was no need for them. A nomad can always move away from a place that threatens to attack, but settled farmers have nowhere to run away. They need to protect their homes, build fortifications – fortresses, walls.
To what was this question?
To debunking another myth.
Every year during the flu epidemics, and even just in the cold period, on the streets and in other public places you can see people in medical masks.
If a person tries to minimize the spread of their own viruses and bacteria with the help of a mask, then he does the right thing.
If a person tries to minimize the receipt of foreign viruses and bacteria with the help of a mask, then he does not do it correctly. From alien viruses mask protects bad because it was created not to protect yourself from harmful germs the environment and to protect the environment from their germs. Masks, for example, are worn by surgeons in operating rooms or dressings in order not to inadvertently add their infectious agents to the patient’s wound.
The simplest means of individual protection of the respiratory system are respirators. Respirators, not masks! The main difference between the respirator and the “medical mask” is that it fits snugly to the face, providing maximum tightness. Respirators protect respiratory organs from harmful gases, vapors, aerosols, dust.
And from microorganisms, too, protect?
Yes, protect. We secrete microorganisms from the lungs and mouth (breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing) in the form of biological aerosol. Aerosol, if someone does not know, called the smallest particles of solid or liquid substance in a suspended state in a gaseous medium. The size of the aerosol particles determines the radius of their propagation and the depth of penetration into the respiratory tract. The greatest danger for infection is small aerosol particles with a diameter of up to two micrometers. Three layers of gauze (namely, so many layers in a medical mask), but in addition loosely adjacent to the sides, can not serve as a reliable protection against such small particles.
By the way, medical masks are not certified as means of individual protection of respiratory organs, simply put – are not recognized as such at the state level, because in medical masks there is no detail that ensures a tight fit of the mask to the face. What kind of protection can we talk about if there is no tightness? Medical masks have one task – to eliminate or reduce the release of microbes from the mouth and nose and thus prevent infection of others. They have no other tasks. And even if the layers of gauze are laid with a layer of cotton wool, that is, the bandage becomes a cotton-gauze, it can not provide reliable protection from foreign microbes.
Respirators and in General all means of individual protection of respiratory organs are divided into classes. According to GOST R 12.4.191–99 for the first class of protection, the penetration of aerosols under respirators should be no more than 22 %, for the second class – no more than 8 %, and for the third class – no more than 2 %. Choose what you see fit. And do not forget to change the filters in a timely manner. The contaminated filter from the defender turns into a pest – is becoming a platform for the propagation of microorganisms. Exactly the same platform becomes a medical mask after about two hours after the start of its use – and to protect something really it does not protect, but in addition collects germs literally under our noses. And if we take into account that the mask is moistened with water vapor contained in both inhaled and exhaled air, then for bacteria it becomes a Paradise on earth, they also love a moist environment.
So do not wear medical masks in order to avoid infection with influenza and other diseases transmitted by airborne droplets. They won’t give you any protection.
Don’t follow the myths, follow the truth!
Viruses are dangerous. They can cause very serious diseases, up to cancer. The introduction of the virus into the cell can lead not only to its death, but also to the beginning of uncontrolled division – the formation of a tumor. Millions of viruses would have destroyed human civilization long ago, if not for the immune system that protects us from everything alien. Cells of the immune system “eat” viruses or produce special proteins against them – antibodies that bind to the virus and block it, prevent its penetration into the cell, that is, in fact make it harmless.
To date, the stimulation of the immune system is the most effective means of combating viruses. It is an effective and universal remedy. Antiviral drugs do not always work effectively and they are synthesized only for some viruses. On vaccination as an effective way to prevent viral infections, and all the myths that are associated with it, we will talk in a separate Chapter.
The immune system is a favorite “area” of myth makers around the world. If you put together all the myths about the immune system, then only one list will take a weighty volume. What is not only stimulate the immune system, starting with magical rites and ending with eating “bactericidal” and “biruzovaya” of garlic. You can, of course, say: “whatever the child or amused, if only with matches did not play”, but in relation to their own health, this approach is unacceptable. While you will amuse yourself with unrealizable, for example, trying to protect yourself from the flu, eating three hundred grams of garlic a day, viruses will get to you and cause the disease, because they, figuratively speaking, wanted to sneeze on your garlic. Onions too. And on the magic amulet made of a claw of the Amur tiger – especially.
Remember all by name, that is, to disassemble individually each alleged “immuno-strengthening” means, we will not, because in this analysis of our conversation about Microbiology and will end – bogged down in this topic just as Napoleon bogged down in the snow of Russia. Let’s say in General and in General that no “people’s natural” means does not act on viruses and does not stimulate immunity.
No “people’s natural” means!
No effect on viruses!
And does not stimulate the immune system!
Do you want to refute this statement? Flag in your hands, a fair wind in the sails and all the search engines of the world together with libraries to help! Look for reliable refuting information. The key word is “credible.” For example, the data of several, independent, randomized controlled trials (ask Google all-Knowing what it is), conducted on the basis of solid scientific institutions. The key word is “solid.” An illustrative example: The Vinogradsky Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a solid scientific institution, but some Uryupinsk international medical and biological Academy is not. Sounding name doesn’t make cowboy office reputable institution.
Immunity to a particular virus can be caused by vaccination or vaccination, when the body is injected weakened or killed the causative agent of an infectious disease, or its specific proteins. The meaning of the procedure is to achieve an immune response – the production of antibodies to this infectious agent, without the development of the disease or its development in mild form.
The immune system as a whole can be stimulated with the help of special drugs called Immunostimulants. Key words – “drugs”. Label immunostimulator now decided to hang on different nonsense, which has only one effect – brings income to producers and traders.
How to distinguish a drug from nonsense? It is very simple – do not look for the name in the Register of medicines in Russia, because the layman in this difficult topic does not understand, and consult with a doctor you trust.
Magic rituals are good for entertaining tourists, garlic is like a spice that enriches the taste of dishes, and hydrogen peroxide (Yes, Yes – it also supposedly stimulates the immune system!) – as a disinfectant. Each toy – its application.
And in order, figuratively speaking, to hammer the last nail, it is necessary to mention that “antiviral” garlic is affected by viruses in the same way as all other plants. For example, the yellow dwarf virus of onions (Oh, what a poetic name!), which carries aphids, spoils the leaves and prevents the normal growth of plants. Instead of the expected result grows dwarf undersized with yellow twisted leaves. The virus mosaic onion acts in a similar way, only the leaves are not yellow, and spotted – yellow-green. Affected garlic and fungi of the genus Fusarium or Peronospora destructive. Bacteria also do not stay away – cause a disease called “bacterial rot” in which garlic rots “alive”. What kind of “antibacterial” or “antivirusanti” you can say here? Here, for example, bleach, also known as “chlorine” and is a mixture of hypochlorite, chloride and calcium hydroxide, has proven disinfectant properties. If you pour chlorine lime into some open container and put it in a dark corner to decompose slowly (in the light, as you know, all chemicals decompose faster), then it will never have any mold – bacteria and other evil spirits, as they say, will die on the way.
Among the myths about viruses, there is one special, remarkable for its absolute absurdity, but nevertheless quite viable, so we have no right to pass by it without exposing it.
It is a myth from the category “and the Earth is flat”. According to him… there are no viruses! Yes, imagine – does not exist. Viruses were invented by scientists in order to write off their mistakes and mistakes on them, unrequited and nonexistent.
Do not know how to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)? Let’s invent a particularly insidious virus, to which the body can not develop immunity, because this virus is constantly “masked” – constantly changing the sequence of amino acids of its surface proteins, turning one protein into another. But it is on the surface of the antibody proteins and recognize the desired virus, which should be neutralized. Surface proteins are a viral “business card” or even a “passport”rather than a card. Human immunodeficiency viruses change their “passports” every minute, because the immune system can not fight them.
Beautiful tale, isn’t it? Oh, these scientists have not invented something in his defense! If they worked as they imagined, the Universe would have long been plied by space buses, and at the North and South poles grew palm trees and baobabs. What’s wrong? For science, nothing is impossible.
In fact, what has just been said about the human immunodeficiency virus is true. It is due to the presence of many “passports”, the immune system is powerless before this virus. And those who deny the existence of viruses and accuse the scientific community of such a large-scale forgery are just fools. Dangerous fools, because by denying the existence of viruses, these people deny the viral nature of the diseases caused by the virus, and therefore deny the precautions that need to be taken in order to avoid infection.
If there are no viruses, then you can not get AIDS, hepatitis and other supposedly viral diseases! Down with all precautions! Walk – not want!
What will this approach, there is no need to explain…
Note the denial of the existence of viruses and viral nature of some diseases is silly nonsense, complete and utter idiocy.
Don’t be idiots and don’t trust idiots! Take care of yourself, and you will be happy, because health is one of the most important and integral components of happiness.
Since we are talking about the human immunodeficiency virus, let’s analyze all the major myths relating to it. This virus is a very serious and deadly disease, to fight which the doctors do what they are capable of only partly.
The first myth says that HIV-infected people must necessarily have on the body some immediately evident signs of their infection, mainly rash. This myth originates from a similar myth about syphilis. Yes, with syphilis in certain periods of the disease, a rash appears on the body. In certain periods, that is, sometimes, and not constantly. A patient with syphilis, as well as HIV-infected, may not have any external signs that distinguish it from a healthy person. And the carrier of some of the hepatitis viruses, by the way, can also be no different from a healthy one. If you want to distinguish the patient or infected from healthy – evaluate the results of the relevant tests, not the appearance of the person.
According to the second myth, a condom is guaranteed to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from one partner to another. Unfortunately, this is not the case, from which side not to look. On the one hand, the condom must be of high quality and properly stored, which is not always the case, and on the other hand during sexual intercourse creates many opportunities for the transition of the virus from one partner to another. Saliva, sweat, urine, feces and tears can not be taken into account, because in these biological fluids the human immunodeficiency virus is contained in negligible quantities, insufficient for infection. It’s about blood and only blood. A microscopic drop of blood of an infected person can cause infection of the partner, if it gets to the area of damaged skin or mucous membrane. “Damaged” does not mean a large wound. Quite invisible to the eye cracks. Passionate kisses with risk of injury to the lips and tongue are one of the main “minipreparation” the ways of transmission of the virus.
Myth three, claiming that infection with the human immunodeficiency virus is possible in everyday life, is valid only for those cases where unprotected contact with the fresh blood of an infected person occurs in everyday life. For example, a medic, not wearing rubber gloves, provides assistance to the victim in a car accident. Yet these “sat on one bench in the bath”, “he sneezed at me”, “I accidentally put his baseball cap” and the like “methods of infection” – a myth and nothing but a myth. Let us repeat that there is very little virus in the sweat, saliva, tears, urine and feces of an HIV-infected person. Such quantities are insufficient to infect a healthy person.
The fourth and final myth relates to mosquitoes, which allegedly transmitted by the bite of the human immunodeficiency virus. On first glance – is logical, after all mosquitoes have deal with blood. Immerse your proboscis in the capillary of one person, drink blood, then fly to another person. They carry malaria.
Oh, if mosquitoes were to carry the human immunodeficiency virus, the whole of humanity from small to large would be infected! Yes, imagine, all of humanity. But, fortunately, mosquitoes are not carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus. The mosquitoes carry malaria, since its causative agent – the malaria parasite, lives and multiplies in the body of the mosquito. And the human immunodeficiency virus in the mosquito can not live, it is not created there for him the appropriate conditions. If we consider the case when a mosquito from an infected person immediately flies to an uninfected person and can transmit to him the viruses that are not yet dead on the proboscis, then in this case the infection will not occur, because these viruses will not be enough to infect. The human immunodeficiency virus takes mass, and on the proboscis of the mosquito the masses have nowhere to stay. In fact, all microorganisms compensate for their small size with their great quantities and for infection with any infectious disease, not one, not two or even a hundred individuals are needed, but much more.
It is known that viruses kill the cells in which they parasitize.
Is it true or not?
Do not rush to answer in the affirmative, because a trick question, as it should be obvious to all issues. Excessive categorization gives rise to the myths.
Yes, the virus can kill a cell after a short period of parasitism.
But he may not kill her for a long time. Why kill? The cell is subordinated, regularly “stamps” new copies of the virus – let it live on, so obedient.
Also, the virus can “give” the cell “eternal life” – change the gene material of the cell in such a way that the cell begins to multiply violently and uncontrollably. For the body as a whole, this option is worse than the imminent death of cells, because it leads to the development of the cancer process.
And sometimes it happens that the affected cell commits “suicide” in order to prevent the spread of the virus in the body. Simultaneously with the attempt of the virus to “reconfigure” the cage “forging” copies of a loved one activated the self-destruct program embedded in the genes of every cell.
In such suicide attempts (scientifically called apoptosis), some viruses can act as a kind of “resuscitators” – they cause failures in the cellular program of self-destruction, thereby prolonging the life of the affected cell.
If the resulting viruses leave the cell at the same time, tearing it at the same time, such a viral infection is called lytic (the name comes from the Greek word “lysis”, meaning “decomposition” or “decay”). Simply “stamp” the viruses accumulate in the cell as long as the cage is not broken like a crowded bag.
If the resulting new viruses leave the host cell “delicately” without causing its death, then such a virus infection is called persistent (from the Latin “persister” – “to be resistant”, since such a virus persists in the body for a long time) or latent (from the Latin “latentis” – hidden). No destruction of cells – no clinical symptoms, that is, manifestations of the disease.
Have you ever heard the term “inapparant viral infection”? So called acute viral infection (that is characterized by a short stay of the virus in the body), which is not accompanied by clinical signs of acute viral disease, that is asymptomatic. If we are talking about the long-term asymptomatic presence of the virus in the body, it is said about the latent viral infection.
We are with you, emphasizing the impossibility of the onset of anything (for example, wage increases), say: “This will happen when the cancer on the mountain whistles.” Virologists use another expression: “When they discover a non-parasitic virus.” Captains and the Evidence of virologists meet with the phrase: “a virus is a parasite.”
And here’s a logic problem.
In some completely isolated from society collective (let’s assume that it is a children’s boarding school) all employees and children except for one only child are vaccinated against measles.
Question – can this child get measles?
Clarification – measles is not fundamental, in its place can be any viral disease against which vaccination is carried out.
The correct answer is Yes, it can. Vaccination makes the body resistant to a certain pathogen, but does not prevent the spread of this pathogen. Once in the body of a vaccinated person, the same measles virus will not cause the disease, but can be transmitted further with microscopic droplets of saliva flying out of the mouth when talking (sneezing, coughing). So those who refuse vaccinations on the basis of the argument “if everyone is vaccinated, then I can not be vaccinated”, is wrong.
Here you can see what we clever, solving the problem exposed another myth. And where only these myths come from in such quantities? It seems that somewhere there is a large office, whose employees are busy creating near-scientific myths. It is not clear why. Yes, among the myths is such that during operation make a profit, but more of the same “selfless”, for example, has just exposed the myth that the fully or almost fully vaccinated society is possible without any risk to health afford to be vaccinated.
Together (through mass vaccination around the world), humanity managed to defeat the smallpox virus, which caused this deadly disease. Currently, it is believed that the nature of the smallpox virus does not exist. Only two laboratories, Russian and American, store viable samples. Just in case you need to have a substrate for the manufacture of vaccines – suddenly the smallpox virus will arise again “out of nowhere”. Practically, this possibility is excluded, but it is theoretically still valid.
Shortly after the world health organization reported on the elimination of smallpox on the planet, the human immunodeficiency virus began to spread rapidly, in the form of a pandemic – an epidemic that spans vast territories. This coincidence gave rise to the myth that the human immunodeficiency virus has occupied an ecological niche, released after the destruction of the smallpox virus. This myth, incidentally, was presented in the media in the form of a solid scientific hypothesis put forward by scientists. “Solidity” draws attention to the myth and provides it with a long life, because what looks like “scientific”, usually rooted in the minds of the masses for a long time.
To begin to understand.
The occupation of a vacant ecological niche by another species capable of performing the same functions in the community as the extinct species is a very common phenomenon in nature, which is called ecological duplication. Species can disappear as a result of any cataclysms, and can be replaced by more adapted – smaller (Yes, that’s right – small, ceteris paribus will displace large), more low-organized (here, too, there is no typo) or more genetically variable.
Able to perform the same functions in the community as the extinct species! Same, pay attention! For example, rabbits imported to Australia at the end of the XVIII century, were in favorable conditions and began to multiply at an incredible rate. Herds of feral rabbits  pushed all Australian seven herbivorous hermits don. Rabbits are known to be very voracious.
Herbivores, that is, herbivores! Predators do not care who to eat – a rabbit, a kangaroo or, say, a sheep. Rabbits in some sense, even preferable to power because they were easy to hunt. This is not a kangaroo, who can strike with their feet that second shot is not required.
And traveled trovoada strife. For example, a Koala that lives in trees and feeds almost exclusively on eucalyptus leaves and shoots, a rabbit, figuratively speaking, will not spoil life. First, the rabbit, who can not climb trees, will not be able to get to the leaves of eucalyptus, and, secondly, these leaves are few to taste, they are too hard and in addition contain a whole set of toxic substances.
The point is clear, right?
Let’s now compare smallpox and human immunodeficiency viruses.
The immunodeficiency virus affects cells of the immune system that have certain receptor proteins on their surface. (Yes, viruses recognize “their” cells by their surface proteins, just as antibodies recognize viruses.) It is because of the defeat of the virus cells of the immune system and there is a persistent decrease in immunity, called “immunodeficiency”.
The variola virus on the skin cells. It is because of this disease on the skin first there is a characteristic rash, and then there are the so-called “smallpox”.
If we consider the human body as a single ecological niche, we can put forward a hypothesis about the change of the smallpox virus to the human immunodeficiency virus. But in the question under consideration it is impossible to look so “widely”, because these niches and ecosystems in the human body are many. The immune system that is affected by the immunodeficiency virus is one thing, and the skin is completely different. The inhabitants of different ecological systems can neither replace nor displace each other, because they live in parallel, do not intersect with each other worlds, in different cells, albeit belonging to the same species of organisms.
Of course, none of the scientists put forward such a “hypothesis” could not. All now not to find, it is a long time, but most likely it was done by journalists. Catchy did it “hypothesis” and in addition with philosophical overtones – defeating one evil, humanity has cleared the way for another. Something to think about, isn’t it?
In this Chapter, the end, and who have read to the end is very clever. Take a pie from the shelf or reward yourself for your diligence with something else, no less pleasant, and then move on to the next Chapter, which will tell you about what terrible wars shake the invisible microbial Universe.