There are few terms that seem to be so clear to us! Well, as: the immune system-is the body’s defenses, resists disease! If he is good-a person is not ill, if bad, then what to expect? Everything is bad and it is urgent to strengthen it! That may be so, just want to repeat the words of Lenin: “they are terribly far from the people!”In our case – from reality.
Here everything is very, very difficult! And such primitive ideas-a nutrient medium for the spread of all kinds of fake “Immunostimulants””, which we are so enthusiast buying! What non-medical people — Doctors (!) write them with equal enthusiasm, often in return really needed drugs!
Notes in the margin
Recently, a respected doctor told me a tragic incident that happened to her friend. It started corny: fever, cough, shortness of breath… the District doctor treated at home and came during the illness several times. The patient became worse, and as a result the young woman didn’t sustain, called “fast”, but almost at once on arrival to hospital died! Running pneumonia and respiratory failure… with her were prescriptions that were prescribed by the attending physician: 4 varieties of Immunostimulants (!) and not a single antibiotic!
Guess how many of the adjuvants approved for use in Western countries? NO! Why? Because none of the tested drugs has not proved its effectiveness, but the side effects have happened! Read more about it in my very first book “how to live longer than 50 years: an honest conversation with a doctor about drugs and medicine”, and now try to understand the arithmetic of immunity. Immunology – one of the most complex medical Sciences, so many postulates will greatly simplify to basically everything was not only scientific, but also understandable!
Our line of defense against infections is defended by 3 powerful units:
- special proteins-antibodies circulating in the blood, as underwater missile carriers on the guard of the Motherland;
- cells-lymphocytes, among which there are professional liquidators – “killers” (they are called), and alien eaters-macrophages (these, however, not quite lymphocytes), and auxiliary parts (these cells are called ” assistants»);
- “complement” system – a kind of “special forces” of proteins that protect our body in a special way.
Headquarters, management, supply, mobilization and communications: lymphoid tissue, lymphocytes and generally – white blood cells. All together is called the immune system. Some protective systems are transmitted to us with the blood and milk of the mother, the majority is formed throughout our lives depending on the collision with certain infectious and other pathological agents. These are the most pathological agents in immunology called ANTIGENS. Called so not because they have something against our genes, it is short for English antibody generator – antibody generator, anti-gen, antigen. Usually these are molecules of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and other debris and particles of viruses and microbes or such well-known allergens as egg protein and plant pollen.
So the enemy is called – is the antigen, in the future, when describing the immunological processes will use this word.
No immunostimulator is allowed to use in the West: in the tests, no drug in the candidates did not show effectiveness, but many had adverse side effects.
In childhood we all have in the chest there is a “thymus” – the thymus gland (not to be confused with “feature”!). In it, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the spleen, intestines and other places develop, Mature to “combat condition” lymphocytes produced by the bone marrow. In the thymus, T-lymphocytes develop, in other places – b-lymphocytes. T got its name from the thymus, but In – from Bursa Fabricia – organ in the cloaca of birds, where this same Fabricius discovered the formation of b-lymphocytes. Well, it’s good that we have such an organ behind the sternum … and then-in the cloaca…
B-lymphocytes begin to produce those same antibodies-rocket carriers, and T– go to the soldiers of cellular immunity. In adolescence, the thymus dissolves and disappears. Quite incomprehensible to me personally phenomenon-apparently, the Lord (or Nature, as you like) decided to strengthen us in those early years, when the formation of our armies of immunity only went, and then transfer the functions of their support to other bodies. Still somehow difficult to understand, and has no analogues in human physiology. Although butterflies???????? at all through stage caterpillars and pupae pass!
Notes in the margin
Always loved Bradbury, read and dreamed with him as a child, his books are always with me in those places where to live and work I throw fate and restless character! Like Gumilev, Dumas, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Shakespeare, Brodsky, Lermontov, Bulgakov, Jack London, Kuprin, Strugatsky – always carry suitcases of books; electronic media is not for me! The book should smell, it needs to scroll, make bookmarks! I know of those who N.With. Gumilev devoted a poem “My readers»
«Many of them
Carry my books in a saddlebag,
Read them in the palm grove,
Forget on a sinking ship.»
And Bradbury has a story, a strange-tormenting impression of which does not let me go all my life! The case takes place in a hospital, where an unusual patient gets. A construction worker loses consciousness, fever, coma and cardiac arrest! But not quite! He does not die, just all the physiological processes are slowed down sharply-the heart beats once a minute, breathing is impossible to determine. Doctors are lost in conjecture, and with the patient continue to occur incomprehensible changes: it is covered with some crust, the skin changes color… and then one of the doctors suggested: what if this is the first recorded transition of a person to another quality, the stage of “pupa”, relatively speaking, and the patient will be a completely different New person of the Future! The patient comes out of a coma, he does not remember anything and wants to go home, and he needs to work! All tests and parameters are normal, all normal. Nothing feels weakness, can be… the Doctors did not want to let him go, to watch him would have all sorts of tests to do, but neither moral nor legal grounds to keep him in the hospital.
Let go with parting words “if that-come”, in reply ” of course, sir!”and the patient leaves. First there is uncertainly, then steps all the harder, and it sets behind the hills, turns and makes sure that from the hospital Windows can not see it… And that last phrase: “he took a deep breath, spread his arms toward the sky and…. flew!”.
I would love to be in his place, as believed, that we are all so well off! (Who would not want to!).
Today, watching the human body for 3 decades, I, as well as in my youth, am convinced that the Lord has created us for something more, in any case, laid in our body tremendous opportunities, which we do not know how to use. We cigarettes, vodka and sausage ruin the thinnest mechanism, we simply elementary do not live up to a stage “dolls”! Once upon a time there was a Flood, and humanity began from scratch. I begin to think that the Creator deliberately slipped us the knowledge with which we made the jump 100 years from the plow: Space, Network, GMO! See some evil, callous, not that the Commandments are basic rules of decency do not respect! A new Flood-troublesome, and these themselves will destroy! How they use the “box of Knowledge” (remember Father Kabani from “Hard to be God”?), self-destruction is guaranteed. Well, who will (always something left) they have learn from the pupal stage to survive!
B – lymphocytes are much smaller than T, but their role in the immune response is difficult to overestimate-they produce antibodies circulating in the blood. But in order to start doing this, The b-lymphocyte must still develop into a “plasma” cell: the slipway from which the missile carriers-antibodies will descend! And the first meeting with antigen gives the command to the beginning of b-lymphocyte development. Only after the first meeting with the enemy in the lymphocyte remembers it for life and begins to forge weapons against him.
That is why we say to mothers and grandmothers: stop running around with the child, let him crawl, let him turn everything, do not shut up, do not block the Windows! He still has an innate immunity, protective forces inherited from the mother’s body! (And not only through the blood during pregnancy, antibodies come with breast milk – it’s about the benefits of breastfeeding!).
This will not last long, they are given to him, so that the baby had time to develop their own protective mechanisms. He needs to have time to face a lot of antigens to those started the process of development of b-lymphocytes, which begin to produce antibodies!
And if we artificially place the child in a sterile environment, then by the time the immunity transferred by the mother begins to weaken, the baby can remain defenseless!
Vaccinations work on the same principle.
Notes in the margin
Remember the history of the Lykov family. The old believers hermits away from the people in the remote Siberian taiga in the beginning of the century and for many years lived there, in isolation from everyone. The development of aviation, the Patriotic war, television, flights into space-all passed by them! And here’s a group of geologists in 1971 accidentally napadaet at the hut Lykov and opens them to the world. The country was shocked by the presence of such hermits in our country and the possibility of such complete isolation! There arrived journalists, there were bright publications in the press, but the hermits – still strong old parents, 2 adult sons and daughter Agafya refused to leave their Zaimka and asked to leave them alone. They were left, but the meeting with people for them was deadly, because immunity to our simplest bacteria and viruses they did not have! And within a year of being discovered, they all died one by one of the common cold – a viral infection! Left only a daughter Agatha born in 1945. She was lucky to survive.
In 2013, my friends and I went Hiking in hard-to-reach places up Abakan. We came to the most legendary HOMESTEAD Lykov and visited last recluse Agafya. The purpose was to check the rumors about her illness, walking among the local hunters. Actually, that’s why they volunteered to take me there! Agatha was a wizened old woman, although, if you look, you know, her not so much. Welcome, speaks a little strange Russian, a lot of strange words. Miserable hut in the garden. Goats and cats are also descendants of hermit Pets. In the hut spinning wheel, roughly knocked together furniture, handwritten books of the old believers, some primitive lamp…
In General, the postulates of complete isolation are greatly exaggerated: the local hunters have always known that they live there, but due to the inaccessibility of the place and respect for the asceticism not very bothered. Agafia was indeed ill; later, at my request, Governor Tuleyev sent a helicopter for her, but Agafia refused to fly to the hospital. We chopped her firewood, left fresh meat, fish (on the way we hunted and fished!), gave a knife, a bowler hat… I then posted on the Internet a short film “up the Abakan”, there you can now look at Agafya.
Many people know the term “immunoglobulins”. This, in fact, is the antibody. The molecule of a specific protein-immunoglobulin consists of two pairs of amino acid chains, arranged in a strictly defined sequence. Sometimes in tests you can see the notation: immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, E (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE). Belonging to a particular class is determined by the composition of some of these chains – the so-called “heavy” chains. Perhaps the information sounds heavy, but maybe crossword fans will remember and appreciate.
The first encounter with the enemy antigen causes rapid cloning of b-lymphocytes, which, when ripe, begin to produce antibodies specifically directed against this particular antigen. But the enemy must still remember and recognize! There is a whole system of accounting and notification: there are special B-cells that have memory (and the more often the body encounters this antigen, the memory is stronger!), and T-lymphocytes, which are still to be discussed, mark antigen, making it recognizable for our launch vehicles.
Next – matter of technology: the enemy is destroyed or on the spot, his toxins neytralizuya, or is called “special forces” – proteins complement (patience, explain!), or, merging in a deadly battle and clasping the enemy, the antibody causes the “cell eaters” – macrophages-and they swallow and destroy both!
Notes in the margin
Involuntarily comes to mind my favorite Dumas and the episode of “20 years later”, when my Lady’s son tries to kill Athos: “Oh, my mother! Mordaunt exclaimed, with a burning look and an expression of hatred that could not be described. “I can only sacrifice one to you, but it will be the one you would choose.” And before d’artagnan could cry out, Porthos could lift the oar, and Aramis could stoop to strike more dexterously, the boat received a terrible shock, Athos lost his balance, and Mordaunt drew him into the water, emitting a wild, triumphant cry. He strangled him in his arms like a snake, wrapped his legs around his legs and did not give him the opportunity to make a single movement.”
The episode accurately describes a typical antibody behavior called immune phagocytosis!
Often such dramatic fights do not pass without a trace for an organism. What exactly is an Allergy? Manifestation of excessive immune response and tissue damage as a result of the release of biologically active substances – histamine, leukotrienes, heparin, enzymes and so on.
We return to the description of the normal immune response. Another major part of it is cellular immunity (as it is called in contrast to the already described humoral immunity). T-lymphocytes in the overwhelming mass are in the lymph nodes and spleen, plus in those places where there is a accumulation of lymphoid tissue. At the same time, they constantly circulate between the places of permanent dislocation, and they can be seen in excess in peripheral blood.
In General, it should be said that in appearance all lymphocytes are indistinguishable, and under a microscope it is impossible to determine the difference. (At night all cats are grey!) Distinguishes their presence of certain immunological markers on the surface.
It’s going to be a little tense right now. All physicians, as well as patients, faced with the AIDS virus (more correctly, the human immunodeficiency virus, but the mentioned abbreviation causes associations at once!), know what value is given to the number of so-called CD-4 lymphocytes in the blood! Indications for treatment and its tactics depends entirely on this indicator! So what is this CD? This is the “Cluster Designation” – the destination group. These groups are many, CD-I, CD-2, CD-3, CD-4 … CD-15, CD-24 and so on. Behind these numbers are the cells: “natural killers”, “helpers”, “suppressors”, etc.
Recall Tsoi and group ” Movies»:
“Blood on the sleeve,
My serial number is on my sleeve.,
Wish me luck, wish me luck!..»
Army details are everywhere in immunology! The number and title of the killer are not all T-lymphocytes, but only those that have already faced once with the enemy-antigen. As described above B-cells, small and neobstrelyannye t-lymphocytes after the first contact with the antigen begin to clone, grow in size, grow up and acquire a particular military specialty. Each Mature T-lymphocyte is already a killer and is able to destroy the enemy cell on its own, but also carries a number of additional functions. Mentioned CD-4: “helpers” – helpers. They help fraternal b-lymphocytes to activate and begin to produce antibodies, direct them to the antigen. Therefore, reducing their number is very strong effect on the level of immunity as a whole!
Other important cells are CD – 8. These are suppressors, suppressors, on the contrary, they restrain excessive activity of excited b-lymphocytes and regulate the synthesis of antibodies-immunoglobulins. The ratio of CD-4/CD-8 cells in peripheral blood is a very important indicator of the immune status!
Notes in the margin
As an illustration of the complexity of the processes of regulation of antibodies, I will mention another cunning mechanism. We often see in the spy militants, as for the executor of the will of the Center sent an observer-controller, ” trust, but check!”. So here: for each antibody produced another antibody-controller, for which the changing component of the first can serve itself as an antigen! That is, while the first antibody behaves normally, the controller does not touch it. As soon as the first antibody wants to show independence and modifies one of its chains, redirecting itself to another, unplanned object, it itself becomes an antigen target for the “controller”. Well, just like in the movies: a shot, then a test… “Stirlitz can not trust anyone!”.
We constantly hear advertising in different cough and cold medications term interferon and it derivatives (“grippferon”, “Viferon” and so on.). There is such a thing as cytokines. These are hormone-like substances that are produced by cells (in particular lymphocytes) and that carry out an immune or inflammatory response in place. These include interferons, interleukins, tumor-necrotizing factor.
Pharmacologists are trying to stimulate the production of lymphocytes interferon, but so far without success. (So, apparently, in comfort, in Russia such broken drugs allowed: ‘ve worked so hard, even to earn money! Abroad, you will not buy anything like this (with such a frail, if not fake, evidence base on the market does not get!). However, serious scientists continue to work in this direction, because cytokines-interferons have a powerful antiviral and antitumor effect (which can not be said about all these advertised in our country and only in our so-called drugs).
If you look closely at the General analysis of blood, you can see there the line “monocytes”. It is, in fact, have already repeatedly referred to the macrophage – eaters of foreign bodies If they circulate in blood they are called monocytes when in tissue – histiocytoma. Can swallow the “stranger” directly, without any frills in the form of an immune response, but their main strength – it is in participation in the overall immune response. First, they “mark” the antigen and deliver it to the antibody in a convenient form. Secondly, carry out the same immune phagocytosis (see above – Athos, Mordaunt.). Third, also produce interferons, interleukins and other cytokines. Macrophages are numbered CD-11 and CD-68.
Well, finally, we came to the complement system. Why this name? From French compliment-encouragement, additive. As a compliment from the chef in an expensive restaurant, and nature has given us an additional (complementary) to the existing humoral and cellular mechanism of immune protection.
We have special proteins circulating in our blood. At rest, they are not active and generally make up about 10% of all circulating proteins. As expected, and they carry their serial numbers – from C1 to C9. Classically the action is triggered by the beginning of the struggle of the antibody with the antigen. Hearing the noise of battle, these proteins rush to the rescue, along the way, one activates the other, causing a Domino reaction, as a result they lined up in order of battle, creating the membrane attack complex. (This is not my idea, this is the official scientific name).